David Appleyard's English Language User Guides and References
内容一覧  
品詞 Parts of Speech 発音 Pronunciation
統語 Syntax 文体 Style
法 The Moods 日本人に区別の難しい英語の音声
時制 The Tenses All-English Version

 

 品詞  Parts of Speech

冠詞      Article   形容詞   Adjective  
名詞   Noun   前置詞   Preposition    
代名詞   Pronoun      接続詞   Conjunction  
動詞   Verb    感嘆詞   Interjection  
副詞   Adverb  数詞   Number (Numeral)  
 

冠詞   Article

アップルヤード英語サービス
不定冠詞 Indefinite article There's a pen on the table.
定冠詞   Definite article The pen is mine.
無冠詞   Zero article Planning is important.
 

名詞   Noun

 
名詞の単数形 Singular noun boy, box, baby, child, antenna, phenomenon
名詞の複数形 Plural noun boys, boxes, babies, children, antennae, phenomena
可算名詞 Countable noun one apple, two apples
不可算名詞 Uncountable noun some rice, some mayonnaise
集合名詞 Collective noun furniture, cutlery, equipment
具象名詞 Concrete noun apple, computer
抽象名詞  Abstract noun honesty, love, fear, happiness
複合名詞 Compound noun bookshelf, word-processor, post office
普通名詞 Common noun apple, computer
固有名詞 Proper noun Linda has a house in London.
名祖 Eponym Parkinson's (named after James Parkinson)
sandwich (named after the 4th Earl of Sandwich)
部分語・単位を表すことば


インスタント単位変換




Partitives, units
and quantity
Partitives express a part of a whole. They also enable us to quantify uncountable nouns: two rices two bags of rice.

None of the adults, some of the boys, all of the girls, both of the brothers, neither of the sisters, etc. (See also quantifiers)

A box of chocolates, a carton of milk, a can of soda, a bottle of Scotch, a jar of peanut butter, a tub of ice cream, a cup of coffee, a piece of cheesecake, a bag of peanuts, a packet of chewing gum, a tube of toothpaste, a roll of film, a tin of paint, a pack of cards, a bunch of grapes, a whole bunch of paparazzi, a company of girl guides, a gang of thieves, a flock of sheep, a herd of cows, a pack of hounds, a school or shoal of fish, a set of rules, a bouquet of flowers, a swarm of mosquitoes, etc. 

代名詞   Pronoun

 
指示代名詞 Demonstrative pronoun This was fun. That was boring.
不定代名詞 Indefinite pronoun Some were good. Nobody is there. Is there any left? 
疑問の代名詞 Interrogative pronoun   What? Which? Who? Whom?
人称代名詞 (主格) Personal pronoun (subjective) I, you, he, she, it, we, you (pl.), they
人称代名詞 (目的格) Personal pronoun (objective) me, you, him, her, it, us, you (pl.), them
所有代名詞 Possessive pronoun   The car is mine / yours / his / hers / ours / theirs
再帰代名詞 Reflexive pronoun Bill burned himself on the hot iron.
強調再帰代名詞 Emphasizing pronoun The Queen herself visited the disaster victims.
関係代名詞 Relative pronoun The man who / that won is here.
The prize which / that he won is also here.
 

動詞   Verb

 
定形動詞 Finite verb A verb form the use of which which is limited by subject and tense, e.g. I go, he goes, she went, they have gone.
不定形動詞 Infinite verb A verb form the use of which is unrestricted by subject or tense. In English this means the infinitive, the gerund and the participles.
不定詞  Infinitive The infinitive is the basic form of a verb you'll find listed in a dictionary.
原形不定詞
Bare infinitive She can drink coffee.
to付き不定詞
to-infinitive She stopped to drink coffee.
動名詞 Gerund She stopped drinking coffee.   
現在分詞 Present participle      Charlie is playing golf now.
過去分詞 Past participle     Emmy has played already.
三人称単数形 3rd person singular    He likes cooking. She watches TV.
規則動詞 Regular verb    She walks, she walked, she has walked   
不規則動詞 Irregular verb I swim, I swam, I have swum
助動詞 Auxiliary verb I have won! He is eating. Do you smoke?
法助動詞  
(+動詞の原形
 
Modal auxiliary verb
(+ bare infinitive)
You must (had to) go. We can (could) drive. He may (might) come. They will (would) win. I shall (should) write to the manager. You ought to complain.
知覚動詞
(+形容詞
Verb of perception
(+ adjective)
She seems reliable, appears confident and sounds interesting. The food looks good, smells superb and tastes delicious.  
動作動詞 Action verb Action verbs are used in both the simple and continuous tenses: Jane plays chess. She is playing chess now.
状態動詞 State (or stative) verb    State verbs are generally not used in the continuous tenses: Jane belongs to the chess club. Membership costs just $20 a year. Some people dislike playing chess, while others love it.  
遂行動詞

Performative verb 発言した時点でその動作を行ったことになる動詞
Performative verbs are utterances that constitute an action:
He admits he made a mistake and promises not to do it again.
他動詞 Transitive verb The company raised its prices.
自動詞    Intransitive verb Prices rose.
受動態 Passive voice Prices were raised.
句動詞 Phrasal verb His marriage broke up when his car broke down.

副詞   Adverb

 
原級副詞 Positive adverb Jenny works hard and carefully.
比較級副詞 Comparative adverb Kate works even harder and more carefully than Jenny.
最上級副詞 Superlative adverb Pam works (the) hardest and most carefully.
度合を表す副詞 Adverb of degree Jack is quite short but rather chubby.
頻度を表す副詞 Adverb of frequency I never smoke but I sometimes drink alcohol.
様相を表す副詞 Adverb of manner Anne drives slowly but safely.
場所を表す副詞 Adverb of place He ran away.
She lives abroad.
時間を表す副詞 Adverb of time Today he is still unwell. 
疑問の副詞 Interrogative adverb Why / when / where / how did he go?
関係副詞 Relative adverb The town where I was born.
文副詞 Sentence adverb Hopefully she'll come. She definitely ought to.  

形容詞   Adjective

 
形容詞の正しい順序 Correct order of adjectives 意見  大きさ    年齢  濃淡 
模様  出身(原産 材料(原料)


Opinion
size shape age shade color
pattern origin material

I have a lovely large round new bright red and white
striped Spanish cotton tablecloth.
限定用法の形容詞 Attributive adjective The late train (= scheduled later than others)
A heavy drinker (= he drank a lot of alcohol)
叙述用法の形容詞 Predicative adjective The train was late (= delayed).
The drinker was heavy (= he weighed a lot).
原級形容詞 Positive adjective Dick is kind and generous.
比較級形容詞 Comparative adjective Dan is even kinder and more generous than Dick.
最上級形容詞 Superlative adjective Dave is (the) kindest and most generous.
疑問の形容詞 Interrogative adjective Whose party?
Which restaurant?
What time?
指示 Demonstrative adjective This / that book.
These / those pens.
配分形容詞 Distributive adjective Each / every / either / neither girl.
All
/ both boys.
所有形容詞 Possessive adjective My / your / his / her / its / our / their eyes.
限定詞 Determiner Word used to narrow the scope of a noun, such as a numeral, an article, or the demonstrative, distributive and possessive adjectives above.  
数量詞 Quantifier A quantifier is either a distributive adjective or some other single word or phrase used to define quantity, e.g. "The old man had some CDs, a few DVDs, a lot of video cassettes, one hundred audio cassettes and half a ton of LP records!" (See also partitives.)
直喩 Simile As strong as a lion, as blind as a bat, as dead as a doornail, as good as gold, as cool as a cucumber, as light as a feather, as heavy as lead, as daft as a brush, etc.

Although his wife has eyes like a hawk, he ate like a horse, drank like a fish, and then slept like a log.  
同意語 Synonym big and large
反意語 Antonym big vs. small

前置詞   Preposition

 
定義 Definition 前置詞は通常名詞または代名詞の前に位置し、その名詞(または代名詞)と他の語との関係を示すため意味合いを付け加えます。以下はいくつかの前置詞のカテゴリーと例文です。
A preposition governs (and usually precedes) a noun or pronoun in order to define its relationship to other words. Here below some categories and examples:
時間を表す前置詞 Preposition of time For two years, since 1999, I've worked from nine to five. I've always arrived in time for work and finished by 5 o'clock. I used to work until / till midnight, but now I can relax before going to bed, at weekends after 12 noon on Saturdays, and during my long summer holiday in July.  
場所を表す前置詞 Preposition of location I work in an office on the 5th floor of the port authority building near the River Thames. I sit at the back by the window with a panoramic view over this important shipping lane. My boss, the oldest among us, sits in front of me. His secretary works opposite him, there's a junior clerk behind her and my colleague Dan sits next to / beside me. There's a filing cabinet between the photocopier and the coffee machine, a clock above the door and a wastepaper bin under each desk. The lunchroom is on the floor below ours.  
動きや方向を表す前置詞 Preposition of movement I got into my car and drove from Wall Street through Midtown Manhattan and then along the expressway to Long Island. I got out of my car at Montvale Race Track, where I got on / onto a horse. I didn't have to get off the horse because I was thrown from the saddle!
方法・手段を現す前置詞 Preposition of means You can go to the Chinese restaurant by bus or on foot, but you'll have to eat with chopsticks!
 

接続詞   Conjunction

 
等位接続詞 Coordinating conjunction Links two main clauses or ideas of equal value:

He's big and strong but not so intelligent. She's both clever and reliable. The weather is either too wet or too windy. Frank is neither very rich nor very poor.
従位接続詞 Subordinating conjunction Introduces a subordinate clause, i.e. one that cannot stand alone without the support of a main clause.
時間の従位接続詞 of time when, whenever, while, as soon as, until, before, after, since
理由の従位接続詞 of reason because, as, since, so
結果の従位接続詞 of result so...that, such...that
目的の従位接続詞 of purpose so that
状況の従位接続詞 of condition if, in case, unless, as long as
対照や譲歩の従位接続詞 of contrast or concession although, even though
 

感嘆詞   Interjection

 
Examples Oh dear! She's late again. Ah, here she is.
Ouch, that hurt!
 

数 (数詞)   Number (Numeral) 

 
基数 / 基数詞 Cardinal number / numeral one, two, three, four, five, six...
序数 /序数詞 Ordinal number / numeral first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth...

 統語  Syntax

文字   Letter  
小文字 Small (lower case) abc...xyz
大文字 Large (upper case) ABC...XYZ
 
形態素   Morpheme 自然言語の中でそれ以上分割することのできない最小の意味をもつ文字列のまとまり
A morpheme is the smallest element of language that can convey meaning. For example, the word bricklayer is made up of three morphemes: brick, lay and -er.
 
接辞   Affix An element added to the beginning of a word (prefix) or end of a word (suffix) to modify its meaning.
接頭辞 Prefix An unusual day. A disobedient child
接尾辞 Suffix The violinist played with the trumpeter.
 
   Word The smallest meaningful element of language. When written it stands alone with a space on either side of it.

(19 words)
 
   Phrase A group of words forming a concept but not a sentence:
in a hurry; by himself; day by day.
2項目句 Binomial phrase There are restaurants here and there where ladies and gentlemen can wine and dine their friends and pick and choose from this and that on the menu.
 
文節   Clause Part of a sentence including a subject and a predicate.  
主節 Main clause A clause that could stand independently and still make sense on its own:

He apologized
because he was late.
従属節 Subordinate clause A clause that wouldn't make much sense without an accompanying main clause:

He apologized because he was late.
関係節 Relative clause  
制限用法関係節 Defining relative clause The hotel (that / which) I stayed in was rather old.
非制限用法関係節 Non-defining relative clause The hotel, which is quite famous, is going to close.
先行詞 Antecedent The hotel (that / which) you stayed in was more modern.
 
   Sentence A sentence consists of at least one clause, i.e. a subject (which is sometimes only implied) and a predicate:

I walk.
Go!
(=You go!)
 
節   Paragraph   A paragraph is a section in a piece of writing, usually highlighting a particular point or topic. It always begins on a new line and often with indentation, and it consists of at least one sentence.

(This piece of text constitutes a single paragraph.)
 
主語   Subject He likes her.
Going on vacation is fun.
Pamela paints landscapes.
John lives in a house by the river.
 
述部 (述語)   Predicate He likes her.
Going on vacation is fun.
Pamela paints landscapes.
John lives in a house by the river.
 
目的語   Object She likes him although she thinks that he's crazy.
直接目的語 Direct object They gave Tommy a present on his birthday.
間接目的語 Indirect object They gave Tommy a present on his birthday.
 
補語   Complement He is a scientist.
She seems amused.
We became tired.
 
話法   Speech  
直接話法 Direct speech "My job is tough," she said.
間接話法 Reported speech She said (that) her job was tough.
 
疑問文   Question  
直接疑問文 Direct question What's your name?
間接疑問文 Indirect question Ask him what his name is!
付加疑問文 Tag question "You keep fit, don't you?"
"You don't smoke, do you?"
修辞疑問文 Rhetorical question This kind of question is used to make a statement rather than get an answer:

"Who cares?" 
(= Nobody cares.)
"Why bother?"
(= It's a waste of time.)

   The Moods

直接法   Indicative mood The earth is round (a simple statement of fact).
 
命令法   Imperative mood Save $200 a year on haircuts. Shave your head!
 
仮定法   Subjunctive mood  
現在も使用されている
古からある表現
Old phrases and clichés still in common use    Come what may...
Be that as it may...
God forbid!
Woe betide...
Till death do us part.
  Jussive subjunctive In British English, the optional inclusion of should helps to clarify the jussive subjunctive:

 AmE  
I suggested that she go early.
She insisted that something be done about his snoring. 

 BrE  
I suggested that she (should) go early.
She insisted that something (should) be done about his snoring.


Hypothetical subjunctive If I were you, I would see a doctor.

(See type 2 conditional below!)
  as if / as though
+ past subjunctive
He acts as if he owned the company.
She speaks as though she knew everything.
  it is time + past subjunctive (unreal past) It is time we were leaving.
 
条件法   Conditional mood  
1:起こりうる Type 1: probable
(real) conditional
If I'm late I'll call you.
2:起こる可能性低い Type 2: improbable (unreal) conditional If I had the time, I'd write a novel.
3:過去の事実と
は異なる仮定
Type 3: hypothetical conditional If I hadn't gone to Vegas, I wouldn't have lost a fortune.
4:中立 Type 4: zero conditional If she has a cold she goes to bed.

 

 

時制  The Tenses

未来時制 Future simple She will sleep soon.
未来進行形 Future continuous She will be sleeping at 11 PM.  
未来完了形 Future perfect At 7 AM she will have slept for 8 hours.
未来完了進行形 Future perfect continuous By 5 AM she will have been sleeping for 6 hours.
現在時制 Present simple She sleeps well.
現在進行形 Present continuous She is sleeping right now.
現在完了形 Present perfect She has slept well since she was a child.
現在完了進行形 Present perfect continuous Tonight she has been sleeping soundly for two hours.
過去時制 Past simple She slept for ten hours last night.
過去進行形 Past continuous She was sleeping when her husband came home.
過去完了 Past perfect This morning he said she had slept all night long.
過去完了進行形 Past perfect continuous She had been sleeping when the alarm clock rang.  

 

 発音  Pronunciation

標準的発音   Standards  
英国の標準発音 Received pronunciation (RP) The clearly articulated standard of British English that is prevalent among educated speakers in southern England.
一般米語 General American (GA) The standard, non-regional form of U.S. English
 
音声学   Phonetics The written classification of spoken sounds.
発音記号 Phonetic symbol A symbol representing one particular sound.
音素 Phoneme 言語の音声を構成する最小単位の要素のこと
The smallest phonetic element of language that can convey a distinction in meaning, e.g. the 'l' in late, the 'd' in date and the 'g' in gate.
母音 Vowel a e i o u
子音 Consonant b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z
音節 Syllable Canada has three syllables.
単母音 Monophthong For example, the single vowel sound /æ/ in "hat".
二重母音 Diphthong For example, the double vowel sound /eɪ/ in "hate". 
同音異義語 Homonym A word with the same sound (a homophone) or spelling (a homograph) as another but with a different meaning.
同音字 Homophone I'll check if the Czech paid by cheque.
同形異義語 Homograph Everyone at the fair had fair hair. It's not fair!  
抑揚 (イントネーション) Intonation The rising and falling of your voice as you speak,
especially when this conveys added meaning.
強勢 Stress The accentuation of one particular word or syllable.
単語に強勢を置く Word stress She's an English English teacher.
音節に強勢を置く Syllable stress He's a photographer.

 

 文体  Style

格式ばった様式 Formal style Your children must be collected from school.
くだけた様式 Informal style  You have to pick your kids up from school.
熟語 Idiom The taxi driver took me for a ride (= tricked me). 
俗語 Slang The cops are coming! (= police officers)
方言 Dialect The language variant spoken in a particular area, e.g. Cockney in London's East End or Geordie on Tyneside.
地方語 Vernacular A widely-spoken, non-formal regional language variant, such as the Estuary English of South-East England.
特殊用語 Jargon I had to reboot my computer after it crashed.
専門用語 Terminology  He held her software on his hard disk.
直喩 Simile He was as emotionless as a robot.
She worked like a robot.
隠喩 Metaphor He is a puppet of the regime.
Her writing was rubbish.