David Appleyard's English Language User Guides and References
Page Contents
Introduction Destinations G-O
Destinations A-F Destinations P-Z

 

Introduction

Learning the English names of lesser-known countries or dependencies, and their corresponding citizens, nationality adjectives and languages, is no mean task. These word families tend to inflect somewhat inconsistently and are occasionally subject to change. Many of them are derived from languages with very different syllabaries to our own, and so it often occurs that more than one form gains acceptance in English, e.g. Azerbaijani and Azeri; Singhalese, Sinhalese and Sinhala; Turkmen, Turkmenian and Turkoman; or Tadjik and Tajik.

When presented with more than one name option, your ultimate choice might be influenced by all kinds of factors. To name a few examples: nationalistic sentiment (Serbian vs. Serbo-Croatian); political awareness (Burma vs. Myanmar); political correctness (a Netherlander vs. a Dutchwoman); differing British and American spelling norms (Argentinian vs. Argentinean); or perhaps even your attitude to loanwords perceived as pretentious or redundant (Côte d'Ivoire for Ivory Coast).

Where in the world do you come from?In official names, the inclusion of "Democratic Republic" or "People's Republic" or "Democratic People's Republic" is a sure sign that the regime is neither democratically elected nor particularly popular. In any bona fide democracy, people hardly need reminding of the self-evident.

Although most students of English will not have to become intimately familiar with this motley assortment of territorial vocabulary, they might still find it useful to browse through the chart below at their leisure. It has been compiled primarily as a handy reference.

Many English-learning sites list the names of countries, their native inhabitants and nationality adjectives. I've taken this one step further by including all the major languages spoken in each territory. There are something like 6,800 known languages on the planet, but barely 270 countries and dependencies. Consequently, relatively few of the language names turn out to be identical to nationality adjectives in the way one often takes for granted. The chart clearly shows just how geographically widespread English is in the world of today, be it as a first language, a second language, a lingua franca, or the language of officialdom. In other words, it's hard to overestimate the importance of learning English!

David V. Appleyard

 

 

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Destinations A-F

Location / Travel Info Native Person Adjective Languages Spoken
Afghanistan an Afghani Afghan Pashto (Pushtu), Dari,
Uzbek, Turkmen, Balochi,
Pashai + other Turkic and tribal languages
Albania an Albanian Albanian Albanian, Greek
Algeria an Algerian Algerian Arabic, Berber, French
American Samoa an American Samoan American Samoan Samoan, English
Andorra an Andorran Andorran Catalan (Catalonian), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Angola an Angolan Angolan Portuguese, Bantu
Anguilla an Anguillan Anguillan English
Antigua & Barbuda an Antiguan
a Barbudan
Antiguan
Barbudan
English
Argentina (the Argentine) an Argentinean
an Argentinian
Argentine
Argentinean
Argentinian
Spanish, English, Italian,
German, French
Armenia an Armenian Armenian Armenian
Aruba an Aruban Aruban Dutch, Papiamento,
English, Spanish
Australia an Australian
an Aussie [colloq.]
Australian
Aussie [colloq.]
English, Aboriginal
Austria an Austrian Austrian German
Azerbaijan an Azerbaijani
an Azeri
Azerbaijani
Azeri
Azerbaijani (Azeri), Russian, Armenian
Bahamas a Bahamian Bahamian English, Creole
Bahrain a Bahraini Bahraini Arabic, English, Persian, Urdu
Bangladesh a Bangladeshi Bangladeshi Bengali (Bangla), English
Barbados a Barbadian Barbadian English
Belarus a Belarusan
a Belarusian
a Byelorussian
Belarusan
Belarusian
Byelorussian
Belarusian (Belarusan, Byelorussian), Russian
Belgium a Belgian Belgian French, Dutch, German
Belize a Belizean
a Belizian
Belizean
Belizian
English, Spanish, Mayan, Carib, Creole
Benin a Beninese Beninese French, Fon, Yoruba
+ tribal languages
Bermuda a Bermudan
a Bermudian
Bermudan
Bermudian
English, Portuguese
Bhutan a Bhutanese Bhutanese Bhutanese (Dzongkha), Tibetan, Nepalese
Bolivia a Bolivian Bolivian Spanish, Quechua, Aymara
Bosnia-Herzegovina a Bosniak
a Bosnian
Bosniak
Bosnian
Bosnian (Bosniak), Serbian, Croatian (Croat)
Botswana a Tswana
a Motswana, pl. Batswana
Botswanan English,
Tswana (Setswana)
Brazil a Brazilian Brazilian Portuguese, Spanish
+ Amerindian languages
British Virgin Islands a Virgin Islander Virgin Island English
Brunei a Bruneian Bruneian Malay, English, Chinese
Bulgaria a Bulgarian Bulgarian Bulgarian
Burkina-Faso a Burkinese Burkinese French
+ Sudanic languages
Burma (Myanmar) a Burmese Burmese Burmese
Burundi a Burundian Burundian Kirundi, French, Swahili
Cambodia a Cambodian
a Khmer
Cambodian
Khmer
Cambodian (Khmer),
French, English
Cameroon a Cameroonian Cameroonian French, English
+ tribal languages
Canada a Canadian Canadian English, French,
Eskimo (Inuit)
Cape Verde a Cape Verdean Cape Verdean Portuguese, Crioulo
Cayman Islands a Caymanian
a Cayman Islander
Caymanian English
Central African Republic a Central African Central African   French, Sangho
+ tribal languages
Chad a Chadian Chadian French, Arabic, Sara
+ more than 100 tribal languages and dialects
Chile a Chilean Chilean Spanish
China a Chinese Chinese Standard Chinese (Mandarin), Cantonese, Shanghainese, Fuzhou, Hokkien-Taiwanese, Xiang, Gan, Hakka + numerous other Chinese dialects and ethnic minority languages
Christmas Island a Christmas Islander Christmas Island English, Chinese, Malay
Cocos (Keeling) Islands a Cocos Islander Cocos Island English, Malay
Colombia a Colombian Colombian Spanish
+ indigenous languages
Comoros (Comores) a Comoran Comoran Arabic, French, Shikomoro
Congo Brazzaville
Congo Kinshasa
a Congolese Congolese French, Lingala
+ tribal languages
Cook Islands a Cook Islander Cook Island English, Maori
Costa Rica a Costa Rican Costa Rican Spanish
Croatia a Croat
a Croatian
Croat
Croatian
Croatian (Croat)
Cuba a Cuban Cuban Spanish
Cyprus a Cypriot   Cypriot   Greek, Turkish, English
Czech Republic a Czech Czech Czech
Denmark a Dane Danish Danish
Djibouti a Djiboutian Djiboutian French, Arabic, Somali, Afar
Dominica a Dominican Dominican English, French patois
Dominican Republic a Dominican Dominican Spanish
East Timor a Timorese Timorese Portuguese, Tetum
+ 15 indigenous languages
Ecuador an Ecuadoran
an Ecuadorean
an Ecuadorian
Ecuadoran
Ecuadorean
Ecuadorian
Spanish, Quechua
Egypt an Egyptian Egyptian Arabic, English, French
El Salvador a Salvadoran
a Salvadorean
a Salvadorian
Salvadoran
Salvadorean
Salvadorian
Spanish, Nahua
England an Englishman
an Englishwoman
English English
Equatorial Guinea an Equatoguinean
an Equatorial Guinean
Equatoguinean
Equatorial Guinean
Spanish, French, pidgin English, Fang, Bubi,
Igbo (Ibo)
Eritrea an Eritrean Eritrean Tigre, Arabic, Tigrinya, Kunama, English
Estonia an Estonian Estonian Estonian, Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish
Ethiopia an Ethiopian Ethiopian Amharic, Tigrinya, Oromigna, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic
Falkland Islands a Falkland Islander Falkland Island English
Faroe Islands a Faroese Faroese Faroese, Danish
Fiji a Fijian Fijian English, Fijian, Hindustani
Finland a Finn Finnish Finnish, Swedish,
Lappish (Sami)
France a Frenchman
a Frenchwoman
French French, Provencal,
Breton, Alsatian,
Catalan (Catalonian), Corsican, Basque, Flemish
French Guiana a French Guianese French Guianese French
French Polynesia a Polynesian Polynesian French, Tahitian

 

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Destinations G-O

Location / Travel Info Native Person Adjective Languages Spoken
Gabon a Gabonese Gabonese French, Fang
+ Bantu languages
Gambia (the Gambia) a Gambian Gambian English, Mandinka, Wolof, Fula  
Georgia a Georgian Georgian Georgian, Abkhaz,
Russian, Azeri, Armenian  
Germany a German German German, Frisian
Ghana a Ghanaian Ghanaian English
+ African  languages
Gibraltar a Gibraltarian Gibraltarian English, Yanito, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese  
Greece a Greek Greek Greek, English, French
Greenland a Greenlander Greenland Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish
Grenada a Grenadian Grenadian English, French patois
Guadeloupe a Guadeloupian Guadeloupe
Guadeloupian
French
Guam a Guamanian Guamanian English, Chamorro
Guatemala a Guatemalan Guatemalan Spanish
+ Amerindian languages
Guinea a Guinean Guinean French, Mande, Soso
Guinea-Bissau a Guinea-Bissauan Guinea-Bissauan Portuguese, Crioulo
Guyana a Guyanese Guyanese English, Hindi
Haiti a Haitian Haitian French, Creole  
Holland a Dutchman
a Dutchwoman
Dutch Dutch, Frisian
Honduras a Honduran Honduran Spanish
+ Amerindian languages
Hong Kong a Hong Kong Chinese
a Hong Konger
Hong Kong Chinese Cantonese, English
Hungary a Hungarian Hungarian Hungarian
Iceland an Icelander Icelandic Icelandic, English, other
Nordic languages, German
India an Indian Indian English, Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Oriya,  Malayalam, Kannada, Punjabi, Kashmiri, Assamese, Sindhi,
Sanskrit, Hindustani
Indonesia an Indonesian Indonesian Indonesian, Javanese, English, Dutch
Iran an Iranian Iranian Persian, Turkic, Kurdish, Arabic, Turkish
Iraq an Iraqi Iraqi Arabic, Kurdish, Assyrian, Armenian
Ireland an Irishman
an Irishwoman
Irish English, Irish Gaelic (Erse)
Isle of Man a Manxman
a Manxwoman
Manx English. Manx Gaelic
Israel an Israeli Israeli Hebrew, Arabic, English
Italy an Italian Italian Italian, German, French, Slovene
Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) an Ivorian   Ivorian   French + 60 local dialects
Jamaica a Jamaican Jamaican English, patois English
Japan a Japanese Japanese Japanese
Jordan a Jordanian Jordanian Arabic, English
Kazakhstan a Kazakh Kazakh Kazakh, Russian
Kenya a Kenyan Kenyan English, Swahili
Kiribati a Kiribatian Kiribati
Kiribatian
English,
Kiribati (Gilbertese)
Kosovo a Kosovan (neutral)
a Kosovar (Albanian)
a Kosovac (Serbian)
Kosovan (neutral)
Kosovar (Albanian)
Kosovski (Serbian)
Albanian, Serbian,
Bosnian (Bosniak),
Turkish
Kurdistan a Kurd Kurdish Kurdish
Kuwait a Kuwaiti Kuwaiti Arabic, English
Kyrgyzstan (Kirghizia) a Kyrgyz
a Kirghiz
Kyrgyz
Kirghiz
Kyrgyz (Kirghiz),
Russian
Laos a Lao
a Laotian
Lao
Laotian
Lao (Laotian), French, English
Latvia a Latvian Latvian Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian
Lebanon (the Lebanon) a Lebanese Lebanese Arabic, French, English, Armenian
Lesotho a Mosotho, pl. Basotho Basotho
Lesotho
English, Sesotho, Zulu, Xhosa
Liberia a Liberian Liberian English + tribal languages
Libya a Libyan Libyan Arabic, Italian, English
Liechtenstein a Liechtensteiner Liechtenstein German
Lithuania a Lithuanian Lithuanian Lithuanian, Russian, Polish
Luxembourg a Luxembourger Luxembourg
Luxembourgian
Luxembourgish, German, French  
Macau (Macao) a Macau Chinese
a Mecanese (of mixed
Asian-Portuguese ancestry)
Macau Chinese
Mecanese (ethnic Portuguese)
Cantonese, Hokkien,  Mandarin + other Chinese dialects, Portuguese, English
Macedonia a Macedonian Macedonian Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish, Croatian, Serbian
Madagascar a Madagascan
a Malagasy (sing. & pl.)
Madagascan
Malagasy
Malagasy, French
Malawi a Malawian Malawian English, Chichewa
Malaysia a Malaysian Malaysian Malay, Chinese, English, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Punjabi, Thai
+ indigenous languages
Maldives a Maldivian Maldivian Maldivian (Dhivehi), English
Mali a Malian Malian French, Bambara, Songhai
Malta a Maltese Maltese Maltese, English  
Marshall Islands a Marshall Islander
a Marshallese
Marshallese Marshallese, English, Japanese
Martinique a Martiniquean Martiniquean French, Creole patois
Mauritania a Mauritanian Mauritanian Hassaniya Arabic, Pulaar, Soninke, Wolof, French
Mauritius a Mauritian Mauritian English, French, Creole,  Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bhojpuri  
Mayotte a Mayottean Mayottean French, Mahorian
Mexico a Mexican Mexican Spanish, Mayan
+ indigenous languages
Micronesia a Micronesian Micronesian English, Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Kosrean, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
Moldova a Moldovan Moldovan Moldovan, Russian, Gagauz  
Monaco a Monacan
a Monégasque
Monacan
Monégasque
French, English, Italian, Monégasque
Mongolia a Mongolian Mongolian Mongolian, Turkic, Russian
Montenegro a Montenegrin Montenegrin Serbian, Croatian (Croat), Albanian,
Bosnian (Bosniak)
Montserrat a Montserratian Montserratian English  
Morocco a Moroccan Moroccan Arabic, Berber, French
Mozambique a Mozambican Mozambican Portuguese, Swahili
+ indigenous languages
Namibia a Namibian Namibian English, Bantu, Afrikaans, German
Nauru a Nauruan Nauruan Nauruan, English
Nepal a Nepalese
a Nepali
Nepalese
Nepali
Nepalese (Nepali), Maithili, Bhojpuri + a dozen others
Netherlands a Dutchman
a Dutchwoman
a Netherlander
Dutch Dutch, Frisian
Netherlands Antilles a Netherlands Antillian Netherlands Antillian Dutch, Papiamento, English
New Caledonia a New Caledonian New Caledonian French + some 33 different Melanesian-Polynesian dialects
New Zealand a New Zealander
a Kiwi [colloq.]
New Zealand
Kiwi [colloq.]
English, Maori
Nicaragua a Nicaraguan Nicaraguan Spanish, English
+ indigenous languages
Niger a Nigerien Nigerien French, Hausa, Djerma
Nigeria a Nigerian Nigerian English, Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
Niue a Niuean Niuean Niuean, English
Norfolk Island a Norfolk Islander Norfolk Island English, Norfolk
North Korea a (North) Korean (North) Korean Korean
Northern Marianas a Northern Marianan Northern Marianan English, Chamorro, Carolinian
Norway a Norwegian Norwegian Norwegian, Lappish (Sami)
Oman an Omani Omani Arabic, English, Baluchi, Urdu + Indian dialects

 

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Destinations P-Z

Location / Travel Info Native Person Adjective Languages Spoken
Pakistan a Pakistani Pakistani Punjabi, Sindhi, Siraiki, Pashto (Pushtu), Urdu, Balochi, Hindko, Brahui, English, Burushaski
Palau a Palauan Palauan English, Palauan, Sonsoralese, Tobi, Angaur, Japanese
Palestine   a Palestinian Palestinian Arabic, Hebrew, English
Panama a Panamanian Panamanian Spanish, English
Papua New Guinea a Papua New Guinean
a Papuan
Papua New Guinean
Papuan
English, pidgin English, Motu + 715 indigenous languages
Paraguay a Paraguayan   Paraguayan  Spanish, Guarani
Peru a Peruvian Peruvian Spanish, Quechua, Aymara
Philippines a Filipino (m.)
a Filipina (f.)
Filipino
Philippine
English, Filipino
and Filipino dialects  (Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocan, Hiligaynon/Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango and Pangasinense)
Pitcairn Islands a Pitcairn Islander
a Pitcairnian
Pitcairnian English, Pitcairnese
Poland a Pole Polish Polish
Portugal a Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese, Mirandese
Puerto Rico a Puerto Rican Puerto Rican Spanish, English
Qatar a Qatari Qatari Arabic, English
Réunion a Réunionese Réunionese French, Creole
Romania a Romanian Romanian Romanian, Hungarian, German
Russia a Russian Russian Russian
Rwanda a Rwandan Rwandan Kinyarwanda, English, French, Swahili
Saint Helena and dependencies a Saint Helenian Saint Helenian English
Saintt Kitts and Nevis a Saint Kittian
a Nevitian
Saint Kittian
Nevitian
English, Creole-English
Saint Lucia a Saint Lucian Saint Lucian English, French patois
Saint Pierre and Miquelon a Frenchman
a Frenchwoman
French French
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines a (Saint) Vincentian
a Grenadinian
(Saint) Vincentian
Grenadinian
English, Creole-English. French patois
Samoa (Western Samoa) a (Western) Samoan (Western) Samoan Samoan, English
San Marino a San Marinan San Marinan Italian
Sào Tomé and Principe a Sào Toméan
a Principean
Sào Toméan
Principean
Portuguese, Crioulo
Saudi Arabia a Saudi
a Saudi Arabian
Saudi
Saudi Arabian
Arabic
Scotland a Scot
a Scotsman
a Scotswoman
Scottish
Scotch
Scots
English, Scottish Gaelic
Senegal a Senegalese Senegalese French, Wolof, Pulaar,
Jola, Mandinka  
Serbia a Serb Serbian Serbian, Croatian (Croat), Albanian,
Bosnian (Bosniak), Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian
Seychelles a Seychellois Seychellois English, French, Creole
Sierra Leone a Sierra Leonean
a Sierra Leonian
Sierra Leonean
Sierra Leonian
English, Mende, Temne, Krio
Singapore a Singaporean Singaporean Chinese, Malay, English, Tamil   
Slovakia a Slovak Slovak Slovak
Slovenia a Slovene
a Slovenian
Slovene
Slovenian
Slovene (Slovenian),
Croatian (Croat), Serbian
Solomon Islands a Solomon Islander Solomon Island English, Pidgin-English +
120 indigenous languages
Somalia a Somali Somali Somali, Arabic, Italian, English
South Africa a South African
(Caution: a Southern African is a citizen of any nation in southern Africa.)
South African Afrikaans, English,
Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho,
Swazi, Tsonga,
Tswana (Setswana), Venda, Xhosa, Zulu
South Korea a (South) Korean (South) Korean Korean, English
South Sudan a South Sudanese South Sudanese English, Arabic + regional languages Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk, etc.
Spain a Spaniard Spanish Castilian Spanish,
Catalan (Catalonian), Galician, Basque
Sri Lanka a Sri Lankan Sri Lankan Singhalese (Sinhalese, Sinhala), Tamil, English
Sudan (the Sudan) a Sudanese Sudanese Arabic, Nubian, Nilotic,
Ta Bedawie, Nilo-Hamitic,
Sudanic languages, English 
Suriname a Surinamer
a Surinamese
Surinamese Dutch, English, Surinamese, Hindustani, Javanese
Svalbard a Svalbarder Svalbard Norwegian, Russian
Swaziland a Swazi Swazi Swazi (Siswati), English
Sweden a Swede Swedish Swedish, Finnish,
Lappish (Sami, Saami)
Switzerland a Swiss Swiss German, French, Italian, Romansh
Syria a Syrian Syrian Arabic, Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian
Tahiti a Tahitian Tahitian French, Tahitian
Taiwan a Taiwanese Taiwanese Chinese
Tajikistan (Tadjikistan) a Tajik
a Tadjik  
Tajik
Tadjik  
Tajik (Tadjik), Russian  
Tanzania a Tanzanian Tanzanian Swahili, English, Arabic  
Thailand a Thai Thai Thai, English  
Tibet a Tibetan Tibetan Tibetan, Chinese
Togo a Togolese Togolese French, Ewe, Mina,
Kabyé, Dagomba
Tonga a Tongan Tongan Tongan, English
Trinidad and Tobago a Trinidadian
a Tobagan
Trinidadian
Tobagan
English, Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese
Tunisia a Tunisian Tunisian Arabic, Berber, French
Turkey a Turk Turkish Turkish, Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek
Turkmenistan a Tukmen
a Turkmenian
a Turkoman
Tukmen
Turkmenian
Turkoman
Turkmen (Turkmenian), Russian, Uzbek
Turks and Caicos Islands English
Tuvalu a Tuvaluan Tuvaluan Tuvaluan, English,
Samoan, Kiribati  
Uganda a Ugandan Ugandan English, Swahili, Ganda, Banyoro, Arabic
Ukraine (the Ukraine) a Ukrainian Ukrainian Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
United Arab Emirates an Emirati Emirati Arabic, Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
United Kingdom a Briton
a Brit [colloq.]
British
Brit [colloq.]
English, Welsh,
Scottish Gaelic
United States of America an American American English, Spanish
Uruguay a Uruguayan Uruguayan Spanish, Portunol, Brazilero
U.S. Virgin Islands a Virgin Islander Virgin Island English, Spanish, Creole
Uzbekistan an Uzbek Uzbek Uzbek, Russian, Tajik
Vanuatu a Ni-Vanuatu
a Vanuatuan
Ni-Vanuatu
Vanuatuan
English, French, Bislama (Bichelamar) pidgin,
+ more than 100 indigenous languages
Vatican City —  Vatican Italian, Latin
Venezuela a Venezuelan Venezuelan Spanish
Vietnam a Vietnamese Vietnamese Vietnamese, English, French, Chinese, Khmer
Wales a Welshman
a Welshwoman
Welsh English, Welsh
Wallis and Futuna a Wallisian
a Futunan
Wallisian
Futunan
French, Wallisian
Western Sahara a Western Saharan Western Saharan Hassaniya Arabic,
Moroccan Arabic, Spanish
Yemen a Yemeni Yemeni Arabic
Zambia a Zambian Zambian English, Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga + 70 indigenous languages
Zimbabwe a Zimbabwean Zimbabwean English, Shona, Sindebele

 

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